Air pollution occurrs through emission produced by incineration of all type of waste. Inorganic emission such as sulphur oxides SOx, nitrogen oxides NOx, hydrogen chloride HCl, Hydrogen fluoride HF, carbon oxide CO, carbon dioxide CO2, metal elements (Zn, Pb, Cu. As), organic emissions include VOC, hydrocarbons HC, dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDFs)), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as, particles with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 (PM10), 5 (PM5), 2.5 (PM2.5) microns and ultrafine particles can reach open air and degrade it. Water contamination occurs through deposition of emitted pollutants on surface water, while soil contamination can occur through accumulation of hazardous substances such as heavy metals, synthetic organic compounds contained in ashes landfilled.
All the above mentioned impacts are minimized through the current developed state-of-the art anti-pollution systems. For this reason numerous WtE facilities are located within metropolitan and megacities such as Vienna, Barcelona, Tokyo, Shanghai etc.